Typically yellowing and wilting of older leaves, as well as reduced fruit size and eventual rotting of the fruit.

In addition flowers can become blackened and shriveled, and the vascular tissue discolored. Exclusion of the disease where it is not present is the only effective means of control.

If an area does become infected all of the infected plants must be eliminated, which is why strong sanitation practices must be used to reduce the spread of disease.


The vast majority of the bananas currently grown and consumed were not conventionally bred but are selections made over probably thousands of years from naturally occurring hybrids. Cultivated bananas are very nearly sterile and as a consequence are not propagated from seed but rather through vegetative propagation, primarily suckers as well as more recently micropropagated or tissue cultured bananas. These factors, very old selections, near sterility and vegetative propagation, mean that these bananas have not been genetically improved either for resistance or improved quality and are becoming increasing in affected by serious pests and diseases.

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