Spiralling whiteflies are small (0.2 mm long), white, and are moth-like in appearance and in their mode of flight. On plants with heavy infestations, white flies and their nymphs occur in dense populations on the undersides of the leaves of the host plant. These populations are generally covered in a heavy coating of white, curly 'wax' and a sugary secretion that is produced by the white fly nymphs.

Spiralling whiteflies are generally active during calm, still times of the day (e.g. at dawn and dusk) when they can be seen flying in large circular patterns around host plants. Whiteflies can be induced to fly by shaking the infested plant, after which they quickly resettle.

Spiralling whiteflies are generally active during calm, still times of the day (e.g. at dawn and dusk) when they can be seen flying in large circular patterns around host plants. Whiteflies can be induced to fly by shaking the infested plant, after which they quickly resettle.

A biological control agent (Encarsia dispersa) was originally established in Torres Strait in 1992 by entomologists from the Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation (DEEDI). This agent is a microscopic, orange-coloured wasp that is host-specific to spiralling whitefly nymphs and has already successfully managed pest populations in Torres Strait and mainland Queensland.

Controlling the pest using insecticides is not recommended.  Overseas experience indicates that spraying with insecticides has little long-term impact on the pest and usually exacerbates the problem by destroying the biological control agents and increasing insecticide resistance in whitefly populations.

Banana Sugarcane bud Moth(Opogona glycyphaga)



The adult is small (10 mm long and 2 mm wide) brightly coloured moth with elongate bright yellow antennae. The forewings are bright yellow with purple-brown elongate blotches at the front and rear margins. Wingspan is approximately 15 mm. The hind wings are pale-yellow and feathery. During the day, adults rest with wings folded on banana leaves, leaf petioles and fruit but because of their small size they are seldom seen.

The adult is small (10 mm long and 2 mm wide) brightly coloured moth with elongate bright yellow antennae. The forewings are bright yellow with purple-brown elongate blotches at the front and rear margins. Wingspan is approximately 15 mm. The hind wings are pale-yellow and feathery. During the day, adults rest with wings folded on banana leaves, leaf petioles and fruit but because of their small size they are seldom seen.

Examine 100 bunches with half-filled fruit and treat with insecticide if 5% of these have evidence of infestation. Dust all new bunches at the bagging stage, if monitoring on older bunches shows damage in excess of the action level. The time of year and the incidence of sugarcane bud moth during the previous seasons will influence the decision to treat or not.

Be aware that bananas planted close to sugarcane may suffer a higher incidence of sugarcane bud moth.

Dust with chemical at the time the bunch cover is applied. Minimise dust deposits on fruit by aiming the dust delivery tube towards the inside of the plastic bag. One light dusting is adequate for control. Avoid further dusting closer to harvest because it may result in a higher than permitted residue on fruit.

 

 

The banana stem weevil (BSW) or banana pseudostem borer, Odoiporus longicollis Oliver (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is one of themost important pests of bananas and plantains. The adult weevils are black-coloured and measure 23-39 mm. Red-coloured morphs of theBSW are also encountered in certain banana-growing areas of India. Based on mating studies, it has been concluded that the colour difference is notdue to sexual dimorphism but is a phenomenon of non-sex limited variation and of sympatry (Dutt and Maiti 1972).

The weevils are predominantlynocturnal in habit, although during cloudy days and cooler months they may fly during the daytime. They often confine themselves within the pseudostem and in the decomposing tissues of harvested pseudostems. All life stages of the weevil are present throughout the year in the infested plant. Adults are strong fliers and in this way, move from plant to plant.

The BSW has a long life span and many adults live for a year. The sex ratio of adults encountered in banana gardens is 1:1.17 (male:female) (Dutt and Maiti 1972).

The sensory structures present on the rostrum of the weevils a key for sex differentiation (Nahif et al. 2000). The pre-oviposition period is 15-30 days and the adult weevils mate throughout the day and night. The mean number of eggs laid by a female following a single matingis nine eggs at the rate of one egg per day.

Gravid females lay yellowish white, elliptical eggs by inserting the ovipositorsthrough ovipositional slits cut by the rostrum on the outer epidermal layer of the leaf sheath of the pseudostem down to the air chambers.

Oviposition takes place only in the leaf sheaths. The number of eggs deposited is considerably reduced as the number of weevils
increases, indicating the existence of a spacing pheromone, epideictic compounds which act as a deterrent to
conspecific females (Ranjith and Lalitha 2001).

Limited supply of high-yielding and disease-free banana planting materials of three banana cultivars hinders growers to use tissue-cultured materials and to operate diversified farms.

There were banana growers who chose to utilize planting materials from their farms or those from their neighbors
or relatives, some of which are infected by pests and diseases, instead of shouldering the higher cost of tissue-culture planting materials. Also, despite better yields realized in diversified banana cultivar farming.

High incidence of pests and diseases reduces banana yield in Oriental Mindoro. Through the adoption of site-specific Integrated Pest Management (IPM) and dissemination of information on banana pests and diseases and their control, the effects of these infestations would be minimized.
chances of pathogen entering the rhizomes, roots and stem of banana plant.

 

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The vast majority of the bananas currently grown and consumed were not conventionally bred but are selections made over probably thousands of years from naturally occurring hybrids. Cultivated bananas are very nearly sterile and as a consequence are not propagated from seed but rather through vegetative propagation, primarily suckers as well as more recently micropropagated or tissue cultured bananas. These factors, very old selections, near sterility and vegetative propagation, mean that these bananas have not been genetically improved either for resistance or improved quality and are becoming increasing in affected by serious pests and diseases.

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